[FKP at TNP2K] Presentations on 1) school transitions based on 21 years of IFLS, and 2) the effect of timing on the distribution of the school cash transfer program

fkp des 2016 2Reported by Adinda Rizky Herdianti

The first presentation of FKP seminar hosted by TNP2K on 14 December 2016 was by Teguh Yudo Wicaksono and Firman Witoelar (SurveyMeter), titled “School Transitions: Evidence from Twenty-One Years of IFLS. The presentation was motivated by the drastic decrease of transitional dropout and the improvement of educational attainment occurring in Indonesia after the Asian Financial Crisis.

Based on the previous studies, the role of cognition on the likelihood of continuing school; impact of learning at primary school; and students’ socio-economic conditions in early years are associated with the increase of school transitional rate. Using a combination of Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) and National Village Survey (Potensi Desa or Podes) data, the research by SurveyMeter found that school transitional rate in Indonesia for SD-SMP level and SMP-SMA level were indeed experiencing increment. The paper also includes the variable of failing grade at SD, which apparently accounts for 15.6% and 16.6% reduction in school continuation to SMP and SMA respectively in 2014. Contrary to the popular beliefs, hours spent at SD and numbers of SMP are insignificant to the school continuation rate. Lastly, the presenters concluded that Indonesia has underwent progress in education in the last 20 years, yet students from lower socio-economic condition background experience such change in  a less rapid speed. Hence, students’ socio-economic conditions in early years do matter to the continuation rate.

The second presentation was by TNP2K team consisting of Elan Satriawan, Rizal Adi Prima, and Wisnu Setiadi Nugroho concerning “The Effect of Timing in Distribution of Education Cash Transfer Program on School Transition: A Quasi-Experimental Approach”. The study was related to the reformation of cash transfer for poor students (Bantuan Siswa Miskin or BSM) in 2012, which distribution was held by the schools. Government then decided to change the program targets from schools to households. There was also unexpected delay of BSM Card distribution due to the expansion of social protection program, which doubled up BSM program coverage. This study tries to identify the impact of receiving BSM card by comparing group of children receiving it earlier and later.

The sampling frame for the study was taken from Unified Database of Poor Households in TNP2K. The survey itself was conducted twice; the baseline survey was taken in February-March 2013 while the endline survey was conducted in February-March 2014. The  study then exploits the unintended delays in the distribution of beneficiary card as natural experiment to evaluate the impact of policy change to poor children in Indonesia. The findings show that receiving social protection card and/or BSM card prior to school registration period ends increase the probability of poor students to be enrolled at SMP by 6.6%.

The two papers being presented showed that socio-economic condition was still a crucial matter that needs to be addressed in Indonesia. While the first one points out that students with lower socio-economic conditions experienced slow progression rates, the second one emphasizes that the beneficiary card alone is not enough, and that the government should also take notice on the timing of the distribution.

Presentation files

FKP 2016 12 14 Wicaksono School transitions evidence from 21 years of IFLS