Languages of Security in the Asia-Pacific

College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University

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Entries Tagged as 'LANGUAGES'

English (Indian) – Symbolic Names of South Asian Ballistic Missiles

September 30th, 2011 · 1 Comment · Ballistic Missiles, English (Indian)

by Nishank Motwani The naming convention of Indian missiles serves a dyadic relationship with Pakistan’s and they are best understood if compared to each other. The names of Indian and Pakistani ballistic missiles express the symbolic language and culture of nuclearization of the sub-continent. The ballistic missile programs of both India and Pakistan are key […]

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English (Indian) – Border

September 30th, 2011 · No Comments · Border, English (Indian)

by Nishank Motwani Niyantrand Rekha, Seema, Vastvik Niyantrand Rekha, Relates to National Border; Border (military); Line of Control; Line of Actual Control The Hindi word for national borders that delineates the territorial contours of modern India is vastvik rekhas (national borders) but in military parlance is seema (border) – the latter refers to the territorial […]

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English (Indian) – Jammu and Kashmir

September 30th, 2011 · No Comments · English (Indian), Jammu and Kashmir

by Nishank Motwani जम्मू और कश्मीर ‘Jammu and Kashmir’ Few terms have the effect of producing dangerous levels of conventional brinkmanship and nationalistic fervour as the word Kashmir does in Indian and Pakistani security discourse. The word Kashmir raises lethal emotions between Indians and Pakistanis, especially those living in the divided region of Kashmir. Since […]

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English (Indian) – Sambandh

September 30th, 2011 · No Comments · Bilateral ties, English (Indian)

by Nishank Motwani संबंध Sambandh Relates to bilateral ties; relations New Delhi uses the term sambandh (ties) to describe its bilateral relations with other countries. However the way the term is employed distinguishes whether ties with other states are family-like, warm, moderate, competitive or antagonistic. In general usage sambandh signifies relations by blood, marriage, and/or […]

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Japanese – Introduction

September 19th, 2011 · No Comments · *Introductions, Japanese

by Peter Hendriks and Sheryn Lee, with an introduction by Sheryn Lee The Japanese language is a key feature of Japanese nationalism, consequently it conveys much about how it constructs and perceives its security. This was displayed in the popular doctrine of nihonjinron (日本人論) – which conveys the meaning of ‘theories of Japanese cultural and […]

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Korean – Introduction

September 18th, 2011 · No Comments · *Introductions, Korean (North), Korean (South)

by Tatiana Gabroussenko (North Korean) and Andrei Lankov (South Korean), with an introduction by Sheryn Lee   “Firmly rooted in the rotten, bourgeois life, the Korean language now spoken in Seoul still uses the nasal twangs favoured by women to flirt with men…; on top of this, English, Japanese, and Chinese loan words, now swarming […]

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Chinese – Introduction

September 18th, 2011 · No Comments · *Introductions, Chinese

by I-Ling Tseng, with an introduction* by Sheryn Lee A survey of security discourses in the Asia-Pacific would be incomplete without an examination of Mandarin Chinese. Much of what is understood of Chinese security processes is from the perspective of ‘qiang wai-Han’ (墙外汉), a term which conveys the meaning of ‘outsider’ but literally translates as […]

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Indonesian – Introduction

May 28th, 2011 · No Comments · *Introductions, Indonesian

by Amrih Widodo The plural character of Indonesian society has had two implications for its understanding of security concepts. Firstly, security has been mostly defined not in a conventional sense, i.e. as the need of a country to protect itself from the threat of military attack by another country, or the threat of an externally-fomented […]

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Japanese – Ningen no anzen hoshou | Hyuumansekyuritii

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Human Security, Japanese

人間の安全保障 (にんげん・の・あんぜん・ほしょう) ningen no anzen hoshou The term is comprised of the following kanji: “人間” ningen – human being; man; person “安全保障” anzen hoshou – safety guarantee; security guarantee “安全” – safety; security “保障”– guarantee; assurance; pledge; warranty (“の” no indicates the possessive case) ヒューマンセキュリティー hyuumansekyuritii from the English words “human security” (katakana)   Relates […]

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Japanese – Anzenhoshou

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Alliance, Japanese, Security

安全保障 (あんぜんほしょう) anzenhoshou Relates to security 安全保障 anzen hoshou – safety guarantee; security guarantee 安全 – safety; security 保障 – guarantee; assurance; pledge; warranty Although anzen hoshou means literally “safety-guarantee” it often conveys the idea of ‘defence’ in a narrow, military sense. The phrase is often abbreviated in the compound Ampo. Ampo suggests not just ‘defence’, […]

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Japanese – Bouei | Kougeki

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Defence, Japanese, Offence

防衛 (ぼうえい) bouei Relates to defence; protection The term bouei consists of two characters: 防 bou – ward off; defend; protect; resist 衛 ei – defence; protection This meaning is reflected in such concepts “autonomous defence” (自主防衛じしゅぼうえいjishu bouei), in which Japan would seek to develop the capabilities to protect itself and its interests. However, the […]

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Japanese – Chihou | Chiiki | Bunkaken

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Region

Terms relating to ‘region’: 1. 地方ちほうchihou This word is used to mean ‘region’ as an area within a single country, though not necessarily just Japan. E.g. 関東地方 kantoo chihou ‘the Kanto region (around Tokyo)’. When used by itself it also has the sense of locality. Thus 地方によります (chihou ni yorimasu) ‘It depends on the locality […]

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Japanese – Kyoudoutai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Community, Japanese, Region, Security Community

共同体 (きょうどうたい) kyoudoutai Relates to community The term is composed of three characters: 共 kyou – together; both; all; alike 同 dou – same; agree; equal 体 tai – body; substance; organisation Literally, ‘cooperative body’ or ‘cooperative system’   This term is also used with reference to region and conveys the idea of community.  The […]

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Japanese – Chuugoku

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Rise of China

中国 (ちゅうごく) chuugoku “China” 中 – in; inside; middle; centre 国 – country Japanese attitudes to China include a wide range of views. The most common way of referring to China is Chuugoku. This means “central region” or middle country”. There is a region of Japan, around Hiroshima, which is also referred to in this […]

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Japanese – Chuugoku no taitou

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Rise of China

中国の台頭 (ちゅうごくのたいとう) chuugoku no taitou Relates to the ‘rise of China’ Remarkable achievements prior to World War II, coupled with Japan’s phenomenal post-war economic recovery, have given rise to a benign superiority complex vis-à-vis China among the Japanese people. In the context of already widespread concern about the relative decline of Japan’s global influence, Japanese […]

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Japanese – Kokka

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Nation

国家(こっか) kokka Relates to nation The term consists of two characters: 国 koku / kuni – country; (the) state; region; home (hometown, home country); (arch)land; earth 家 ka / ie – house; home; family   Kokka conveys the meaning of ‘state’, ‘country’ or ‘nation’, yet it also suggests family. The term kokumin, 国民, conveys the meaning […]

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Japanese – Chitsujo

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Order

秩序 (ちつじょ) chitsujo Relates to order The term consists of two characters: 秩chitsu – regularity; order 序 jo – beginning; order; precedence; occasion; chance   This is a very important concept and there is strong support among Japanese for government action that contributes to the preservation of order. In English, ‘order’ has a policing connotation […]

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Japanese – Heiwa | Kyouwa

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Peace

平和 (へいわ) heiwa 平 hei – even; flat; peace 和 wa – harmony; peace; soften; Japan 協和 (きょうわ) kyouwa 協 kyou – cooperation 和 wai – harmony; peace; soften; Japan   Relates to peace; harmony Heiwa and kyouwa are commonly used in everyday discussion. Society is still considered in peace if it is going through […]

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Japanese – Rachi | Yuukai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Kidnapping

拉致 (らち) rachi 拉 ra – kidnap; crush 致 chi – do; cause; exert; incur; engage 誘拐 (ゆうかい) yuukai 誘 yuu – entice; tempt; ask; invite; seduce 拐kai – kidnap; falsify   Relates to kidnapping Both of these Sino-Japanese terms relate to the word ‘kidnapping’ ; however, 拉致 (rachi) is closer to the meaning ‘abduction’ and誘拐 […]

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Japanese – Ikan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Apology, Japanese

遺憾 (いかん) ikan Relates to apology The term consists of two characters: 遺 i – bequeath; leave behind; remain (often used in compounds pertaining to death e.g. 遺志  ishi “dying wish”,  遺児  iji “orphan”,   遺骸  igai “corpse body”) 憾 kan – remorse; regret Therefore combined together they mean: ‘regret remains’, ‘regretfully’   A concept related […]

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Japanese – Rekishi Kyookasho Mondai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Historical Revisionism, Japanese

歴史教科書問題 (れきしきょうかしょもんだい) rekishi kyookasho mondai “The problem of history textbooks”   Relates to historical revisionism The issues of rekishi kyoukasho mondai convey a threat to the nation. This is one of a group of 問題 mondai (‘issues’, ‘problems’) (as well as, 慰安婦問題 ianfu mondai ‘comfort women issue’, and 靖国神社参拝問題 Yasukuni jinja sanpai mondai ‘the problem […]

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Japanese – Semai | Shigen ni toboshii

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Expansionism, Japanese

狭い (せまい) semai ‘narrow’ 資源に乏しい (しげんにとぼしい) shigen ni toboshii ‘Limited in natural resources’ Relates to expansionism These two words / phrases often appear in similar contexts, hence their appearance here together. Dictionaries will give ‘narrow’ as the first meaning of the word semai, but when one hears it actually being used one soon realises that […]

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Japanese – Utsukushii kuni

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Japanese, Stability

美しい国 (うつくしい くに) Utsukushii kuni “Beautiful country”   Relates to stability and harmony This phrase became popular through Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (who was PM from September 2006-September 2007). He was a conservative politician (even by Japanese standards) who denied the abduction of comfort women by Japan in WWII and who supported the controversial and […]

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English (Australian) – Introduction

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · *Introductions, English (Australian)

by Brendan Taylor, with an introduction by Matthew Hill A survey of the Australian security discourse represents a valuable addition to a broader overview of the languages of security in the Asia-Pacific, both on account of Australia’s active attempts to involve itself in regional security processes, and its unusual status as a young, predominantly European […]

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South Korean – Anjon | Anjong | Anbo

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Korean (South), Security

안전  (安全) anjŏn 안정 (安定) anjŏng 안보 (安保) anbo Relates to security Korean has three words to express the idea of “security/safety” which have subtle but real differences in meaning. All these words are of Sino-Japanese origin; they are coined in Japan by combining together two Chinese characters. These terms are widely used but their […]

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South Korean – Chu’kwon

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Korean (South), Sovereignty

주권      (主權) chu’kwon Relates to sovereignty The idea of sovereignty is expressed by a Sino-Korean word, chu’kwon (주권/主權). The first component means ‘man’, ‘major’, ‘ruler’ and ‘owner’; the second means ‘rights’. In other words, the Korean term for “sovereignty” can be rendered in English as “the rights of the master”. We are dealing here with […]

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South Korean – Minjok

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Korean (South), Nation

민족    (民族) minjok Relates to nation The concept of ‘nation’ (민족 (民族) minjok) is new in Korean. The term was first used only around 1905 and is a loanword from the Japanese word ‘minzoku’. However, the Korean perception of the term is somewhat different from the understanding of the English ‘nation’. In the case of […]

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South Korean – T’ongil

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Korean (South), Unification

통일   (統一) t’ongil Relates to unification This concept is used to refer to state unity in general and the future unification of Korea in particular. The word is widely used in historical texts to describe the unification of different parts to make one state, and always has positive connotations. For example, the conquest of the […]

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South Korean – P’yong hwa

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Korean (South), Peace

평화     (平和) p’yong hwa Relates to peace This is also a Japanese-made word, and refers essentially to the absence of military conflict. It is possible to have both peace and instability, and it can be used with reference to a society that is going through profound change. It suggests a situation where there […]

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South Korean – Chilso

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Korean (South), Order

질서    (秩序) chilso Relates to order The term ‘chilso’ needs to be distinguished from the notion of security: it suggests the maintenance of order, particularly in the context of a system or structure. In giving the police the role of maintaining or protecting ‘chilso’, there is an implication of a broadening of police powers. The […]

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