Languages of Security in the Asia-Pacific

College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University

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Entries Tagged as 'Shan'

Shan – Introduction

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · *Introductions, Shan

by Brian McCartan This chapter explores several terms security related as used by Shan in the Shan State of northern and northeastern Burma/Myanmar. The Shan refer to themselves as Tai (). The use of Shan comes from a corruption of Siam by the Burmans which became Shan () and was later incorporated into English. In […]

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Shan – Soon Oob Burng Hangkor

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Autonomy, Shan

Soon Oob Burng Hangkor Relates to autonomy The initial element of this term, soon, means ‘rights’, or ‘the right’. Oob, from the Burmese ob, which means ‘to preside over, be in charge’. Burng, from the Burmese paing, or paing naing, means ‘to rule over, to handle something’. Together oob burng means ‘to rule, preside over, […]

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Shan – Lenlin

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Border, Shan

Lenlin Relates to border The Shan word used to describe a border is composed of the elements len, ‘boundary’, and lin, ‘ground or land’. The Thai term chaiden (ชายแดน), meaning ‘borderland’ is also understood, pronounced zailen in Shan, but not generally used. Lenlin, it should be stressed, means the border area or borderland rather than […]

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Shan – Karn | Yang Hseuk | Keud Hseuk

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Ceasefire, Shan

Karn Yang Hseuk Keud Kseuk Relates to ceasefire Karn, which literally means ‘activity, action or work’, is used here as a prefix turning a verb into a verbal noun. It is only used by Thai-Shans and is meaningless in proper Shan. Hseuk means ‘battle’, ‘war’ or ‘armed conflict’. Many of the word combinations in Shan […]

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Shan – Sang Lawg Marn Jai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Confidence, Shan

Sang Lawg Man Jai Relates to confidence-building Jai is used to indicate a state of mind or feeling when it is used as a suffix to a verb. Here, placed with man – ‘stable, firm, permanent’ – it becomes ‘to be certain or convinced.’  The prefix kwam, which on its own means ‘words, speech, language […]

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Shan – Yen Pen Marn

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Ethnicity, Shan

Yen Pen Marn ‘Transforming or becoming Burmese’   Relates to cultural imperialism; Burmanization There is no term that accurately conveys the concept of ‘cultural imperialism’. The closest term is ‘yen pen Marn’, which translates as ‘transforming or becoming Burmese.’ More commonly, and more colourfully used is the term om uen, meaning ‘to swallow’. It is […]

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Shan – Karn Ket Kae | Karn Khao Tuk

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Defence, Offence, Shan

Karn Ket Kae Karn Khao Tuk Relates to defence/offence Karn, which literally means ‘activity, action or work’, is also used as a prefix turning a verb into a verbal noun. Ket means ‘to head off, thwart, hinder, obstruct’ and combined with kae, ‘to deliver from or remove a present evil, save from harm or danger’ […]

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Shan – Möng Hom Toom

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Federalism, Shan

Möng Hom Toom Relates to federalism The Shan term for federalism comes from möng, ‘country’, and hom toom (=rfjwkrf), which in its verb form means ‘to join together’ or ‘unify’ and as an adjective, ‘federated’. Möng can mean ‘city’ as well as ‘country’ or ‘state’. This is a relatively new term in Shan: it was […]

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Shan – Taek Tang Jai Heng Lai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Forced Labour, Shan

Taek Tang Jai Heng Lai Relates to forced labour This term comes from combining taektaeng, ‘to oppress’, with jai (or zai), ‘to employ services, make use of’, heng, ‘strength or energy’ and lai, ‘free, without payment’. The expression then carries the idea of ‘oppressing by using one’s strength to get something for free’. This term […]

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Shan – Lawng Lawt Liao | Kwan Kor

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Independence, Shan

Lawng Lawt Liao Relates to freedom Kawn Kor Lawt on its own means ‘to be free, loose, without restraint’. Combined with liao, which means ‘to be single or solitary, or unmarried’, lawt liao means ‘to be disengaged, independent, or free from oppression’.  Lawng is a substantive prefix denoting a topic changing lawt liao into a […]

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Shan – Jer Jad Van Möng

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Nation, Shan

Jer Jad Van Möng Relates to nation The term for nation combines the words for nationality, jer jad, with the words for village, van, and country or state, möng. The joined term, it must be stressed, has the connotation of a country of a certain people or race, and there a suggestion to that the […]

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Shan – Lawng Gad Yen

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Peace, Shan

Lawng Gad Yen Relates to peace The Shan word for peace is gad, meaning ‘to be cold, cool’ combined with yen, ‘to be quiet, still, calm’ or to become ‘peaceful, happy, free from outward troubles.’  Yen also has the added meaning of ‘being quiet after a conflict.’  The substantive prefix lawng simply turns the word […]

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Shan – Lawng Lawt Pay

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Security, Shan

Lawng Lawt Pay Relates to safety; security Lawt in itself means ‘to be free’ or ‘released’ from something. Pay translates as ‘danger’, ‘evil’ or ‘harm’, and is derived from the Burmese word for danger or harm, bay. Together, lawt pay means to be free from danger or harm. The prefix lawng, which denotes a topic, […]

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Shan – Lawng Hom Lom

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Security, Shan

Lawng Hom Lom Relates to security Hom means ‘to cover’, and combined with other words gives the connotation of covering something. Lom is to be ‘well protected’ or ‘well covered’. Combined with the substantive prefix, lawng, the term means security. The literal definition of this term is that all sides are fully covered, meaning that […]

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Shan – Möng Tai | Zeung Tai | Phen Lin Tai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Region, Shan

Möng Tai “Shan country” Zeung Tai “Shan state“ Phen Lin Tai “Shan land” Relates to region Möng Tai is the term most used by Shans when describing their homeland. It literally means the country – möng – of the Shan or Tai. The various usages of möng are discussed under Nation. Tai is the term […]

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Shan – Ah Na Soong Sut | Ah Na Jik Jawm

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Shan, Sovereignty

Ah Na Soong Sut Ah Na Jik Jawm Relates to sovereignty Ah Na, originating from Pali, means ‘power’ or ‘authority’. Combined with the adjective soong, ‘high’ and the suffix sut, which denotes ‘the most’ or ‘-est’, the term comes to mean ‘the highest power.’ Although seemingly absolute, the term really has the connotation of being […]

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Shan – Lawng Man Keum

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Shan, Stability

Lawng Man Keum Relates to stability Both man – conveying ‘stable’, ‘permanent’ and ‘steadfast’ and keum – suggesting ‘to be firm, immovable’ – give the sense of something unchangeable. Together with lawng, the prefix making the term a noun, the term becomes ‘stability’. Strongly implied is the idea of changelessness and constancy without disturbance. The […]

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Shan – Phu Kaw Karn Hai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Shan, Terrorism; terrorist

Phu Kaw Karn Hai Relates to terrorist The term has been created out of the components phu, ‘mankind, person, individual’, kaw, ‘make or start’, karn, ‘work, labour’ and hai, ‘bad or evil.’ It is a loan from the Thai word ผู้ก่อการร้าย (Phu Kaw Karn Rai). This literal translation of the Thai word for ‘terrorist’ is […]

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Shan – Karn Lawk Ngeud

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Shan, Threat

Karn Lawk Ngeud Relates to threat Lawk means ‘to frighten, threaten’, while ngeud means ‘to threaten’, and ‘to crush with a grinding motion’. Put together they collectively become the verb ‘to threaten’. Combined with karn, a prefix that turns verbs into nouns, the word becomes ‘threat’. This term is used on a political level as […]

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