Languages of Security in the Asia-Pacific

College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University

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Entries Tagged as 'RELATES TO'

Indonesian – Keamanan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Security

Keamanan Relates to security It would be a mistake to translate ‘keamanan’ simply as ‘security’. Significantly, the word ‘sekuritas’ is more commonly used in the field of finance, banking, insurance and computing. Keamanan’s root word ‘aman’ is aligned with ‘sentosa’ (strong), ‘tenteram’ (peaceful) and ‘tidak berbahaya’ (not dangerous) or ‘tidak dalam bahaya’ (not in danger). […]

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Indonesian – Ketertiban

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Order, Security

Ketertiban Relates to security, order, resilience Former Indonesian president Suharto shrewdly called his government ‘Orde Baru’ (The New Order) to distinguish it from the previous government, which he called ‘Orde Lama’ (The Old Order).  In a speech in 1978, he explicitly defined the Old Order as ‘a regime which had deviated from Pancasila (the five […]

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Indonesian – Ketahanan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Defence, Indonesian

Ketahanan Relates to defence; resilience; endurance The word ‘tahan’ suggest endurance or to withstand. The abstract noun ‘ketahanan’ is usually translated in English as ‘resilience’ as in ‘national resilience’. It can also suggest to restrain and to arrest, with a noun ‘penahanan’ (arrest), or be incorporated in the verb ‘mempertahankan’ (to defend). The term ‘pertahanan’ […]

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Indonesian – Keamanan Manusia

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Human Security, Indonesian

Keamanan Manusia Relates to human security The term ‘keamanan manusia’ is a relatively new piece of terminology that relates to human security. Its referent is moving focus from security of the state and society to security of the people as citizens. The emergence of the concept of ‘human security’ was warmly welcomed by NGOs and […]

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Indonesian – Kedaulatan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Sovereignty

Kedaulatan Relates to sovereignty; authority ‘Kedaulatan rakyat’ (people’s sovereignty) is placed in a supreme position in the Indonesian constitution.  Interestingly, the word daulat originates from a feudalistic context, i.e. expression of deference to nobility.  It transforms into a keyword for Indonesian revolution when it is made into an intransitive verb berdaulat (sovereign, independent). The word […]

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Indonesian – Kawasan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Region

Kawasan Relates to region; area The development of the concept of ‘region’ in Southeast Asia seems to oscillate between cultural interpretations and territorial-geopolitical underpinnings.  The commonly used term ‘kawasan’ which literally means ‘border’ gained popularity only recently with a geopolitical/economic sense such as in kawasan keamanan ASEAN (ASEAN security region) or kawasan ekonomi ASEAN (ASEAN […]

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Indonesian – Kemerdekaan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Independence, Indonesian

Kemerdekaan Relates to independence, sovereignty An emotive state and exclamation declaring freedom from colonialisation and perceived colonising authority and power. A referent being free from any forms of colonisation or any perceived colonialising and imperialistic authority and power. The word ‘merdeka’, which was used as a battle cry during the revolution, is an emotive expression […]

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Indonesian – Pluralisme

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Pluralism

Pluralisme Relates to pluralism; diversity; religious deviance a concept acknowledging and promoting the diversity of a national society. a referent of the accepted multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural natures of the national society. a threat to matters of usuluddin (religious directives) such as aqidah (theology), which are considered non-negotiable. The long-established lexical meaning of the English […]

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Indonesian – Komunisme

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Communism, Indonesian

Komunisme Relates to communism an ideology which was popular prior to the New Order but then considered a serious threat to national security. a concept and label for social and political behaviour considered opposing to or deviant from the accepted norms. Suharto’s New Order successfully defined the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) as the biggest and […]

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Indonesian – Teroris

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Terrorism; terrorist

Teroris Relates to terrorist a threat a strategy to change the referent of the term and the connotation of its meaning The word teroris is a relatively new word and does not have an Indonesian equivalent as it refers to a new aspect of the country’s security reality. It relates to the English term for […]

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Indonesian – Jamaah Islamiyah

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Community, Indonesian

Jamaah Islamiyah Relates to Islamic community; terrorist organisation a concept and a referent signifying an idealized Islamic community a threat understood as a loose network of various groups that want to establish an Islamic state in Southeast Asia and linked to the Al Qaeda terrorist organisation. The literal meaning of Jamaah Islamiyah (JI) is Islamic […]

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Indonesian – Komunitas Keamanan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Security Community

Komunitas Keamanan Relates to security community Komunitas Keamanan ASEAN is the Indonesian translation of ASEAN Security Community (ASC), a concept introduced by Indonesia in 2003. Since its introduction, the ASC has been considered a breath of fresh air, both for ASEAN and for Indonesian foreign policy. The proposal was made as Indonesia assumed the chairmanship […]

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Indonesian – Ratih

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Indonesian, Militia

Ratih Relates to ‘trained citizens'; militia a concept related to defense, protection and/or security a strategy to deal with a threat Ratih (an acronym for ‘rakyat terlatih’ which literally means “trained citizens”) was a policy to recruit citizens, give them military training and arm them to guard the general election in 1999. The policy was […]

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Indonesian – Penangkalan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Deterrence, Indonesian

Penangkalan Relates to deterrence; prevention Even though the concept has been used and understood mostly by the limited communities who deal with international relations and military affairs, the Indonesian language has a problem translating the term ‘deterrence’.  Almost all written materials would use the English term ‘deterrence’ or if they give a translation, the English […]

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Indonesian – Kepercayaan

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Confidence, Indonesian

Kepercayaan Relates to confidence; trust The term saling menghormati (mutual respect) seems pivotal in confidence and security building.  The prominence of the principle saling menghormati derives especially from the experience dealing with Australia in the period following East Timorese independence and during the era of global terrorism. Two cases can illustrate such a principle: ‘megaphone […]

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Thai – Khwaam samakkhi

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Thai, Unity

ความสามัคคี Khwaam samakkhi Relates to unity or harmony Khwaam samakkhi is a key concept for Thai discussions of society and politics, and suggests the necessity of “one-ness” (tong pehn neung).  The term refers to unity or harmony, and it is used to assert the integration and consolidation of the kingdom. It came into common use […]

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Thai – Khwaam mankhong

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Security, Thai

ความมั่นคง     Khwaam mankhong Relates to security Khwam mankhong is composed of two distinct and complementary words: man and khong.  Man means firm, constant, solid, steadfast; khong implies permanence and endurance. The compound mankhong refers to something which is strong and durable, unchangeable, and reliable.  All of these words have a long history in the […]

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Thai – Khwam mankhong khong manut

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Human Security, Thai

ความมั่นคงของมนุษย์ Khwam mankhong khong manut Relates to Human Security Human security is usually translated as khwaam mankhong khong manut or khwaam mankhong khong khon. In general the meaning of the words khon and manut (for human) are interchangeable. With the end of the Cold War, prominent experts from the United Nations introduced an international conception […]

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Thai – Phonlamuang | rasadorn | prachachon

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Community, Thai

พลเมือง | ราษฎร | ประชาชน Phonlamuang | rasadorn | prachachon Relates to ‘The [Thai] People’ There are various terms in Thai that refer to the ‘people of Thailand’. Each term is differentiated to reflect social hierarchy as well as the group’s degree of political awareness and participation in Thai society. There are three key terms: […]

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Thai – Athipatai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Sovereignty, Thai

อธิปไตย Athipatai Relates to sovereignty In Thai, the concept of sovereignty is derived from the Pali word athipatoeyya which means khwam pen yai ying: supremacy.  It is however, a relatively new term and one that was not used in Thailand before the reign of King Chulalongkorn. The term ‘athipatai’ can be used as a suffix […]

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Thai – Chaat

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Nation, Thai

ชาติ Chaat Relates to nation Arguably the most important referent for security thinking in Thailand remains ‘the nation’ (chaat). The word is derived from the Sanskrit Jata which is the same root as most Indian terms for caste. In Thai it carries a sense of racial and national cohesiveness even though Thailand is a remarkably […]

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Thai – Kwaam pen Thai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Ethnicity, Thai

ความเป็นไทย Kwaam pen Thai Relates to Thai-ness The nationalism that infuses Thailand’s security language is very apparent in the deployment of ‘Thai-ness”, and its continuing defence, as one way that the nation is made strong. For Thai-ness to retain its potency it requires the almost perpetual threat from some other, often the Burmese but sometimes […]

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Thai – Sataban

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Institution, Thai

สถาบัน Sataban Relates to “Institution” To reference “the institution” in Thai is to point towards a code for “monarchy”. Since the coup of 2006 Thailand’s polarised political landscape has seen the word sataban used by those on both sides. It used to interpret situations where direct reference to the king or his family would be […]

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Thai – Rat Issara

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Region, Thai

รัฐอิสระ Rat Issara Relates to autonomous region In Thailand any attempt to translate autonomous region tends to be controversial.   In the Thai press and other sources, it is referred to in a variety of ways as การปกครองตนเอง  (kan pokkhrong ton eng – self-rule), เขตปกครองอิสระ (khet pokkhrong isara – independent administration zone), รัฐอิสระ (rat isara – […]

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Thai – Khwaam klua

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Fear, Thai

ความกลัว Khwaam klua Relates to fear In Thai security discourse ‘fear’ is cast as generalised emotion and is not necessarily seen to emerge from a specific threat. Some of the fear that is felt in Thailand today can be traced back to the ways that memories of historical violence, and state sanctioned retribution, make them […]

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Thai – Hua runraeng

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Terrorism; terrorist, Thai

หัวรุนแรง Hua runraeng Relates to fundamentalist, extremist, militant The expression hua runraeng is a complex compound: hua: literally means ‘head, front, beginning, bulb, tuber’  (Haas, 1964: 579); runraeng means ‘violent, severe, fierce, and strong’ (Haas, 1964:  459), itself a tight compounding of run ‘push’ and raeng ‘force’. The word hua forms many compounds (Juntanamalaga 1992: […]

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Thai – Fai tai

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Thai, Turmoil

ไฟใต้    Fai tai Relates to ‘southern fire’, insurgency In some traditional belief systems, the four elements earth, water, air and fire are seen as basic constituents of nature. In the Thai version, these elements should be in equilibrium. Fire and heat, in particular, if ever out of balance, connote violence and unrest.  After years of […]

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Thai – Kham kho-thot | Kan kho aphay

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Apology, Thai

คำขอโทษ | การขออภัย Kham kho-thot | Kan kho aphay Relates to apology The term kham kho-thot (apology) can refer to: apology and excuse (Haas, 1964: 51).  It is composed of two key syllables: kho and thot.  Kho means: to ask for, beg, request (Haas, 1964:  51) while thot means 1.  punishment, penalty; 2. harm, danger […]

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Thai – Araya Khatkhuen

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Civil Disobedience, Thai

อารยะขัดขืน Araya Khatkhuen Relates to civil disobedience ‘Civil disobedience’ originated in 1849 with Henry David Thoreau, an American author and philosopher, and was publicised in an essay entitled ‘Civil Disobedience’ in 1854.  In the past, few Thai citizens dared to practice this form of resistance.  However, there have been examples in recent decades when it […]

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Thai – Khwaam Chop Tham (Dharma)

May 27th, 2011 · No Comments · Legitimacy, Thai

ความชอบธรรม Khwaam Chop Tham (Dharma) Relates to legitimacy/righteousness In Thai, the prefix or suffix ‘Dharma’ is added to many words which relate to State governance. This is a significant concept that is used by everyone in Thailand to describe political platforms of almost all flavours. When the country was under an absolute monarchy, the state […]

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