Western learners of Asian languages often resist speaking as native speakers do. For example, they might deliberately choose different address terms, or flout the norms for when and how to apologise, or thank, or complain. They do so because their self-identity within their second-language culture – such as strongly identifying as an outsider – makes those norms seem irrelevant or distasteful to them. As a result, individual learners vary wildly in their progress when it comes to this dimension of the language. In fact, as some of them spend longer in the country, the less they actually sound like native speakers.