What happened when a nineteenth-century Jain monk met a Christian missionary? Thanks to a unique Hindi manuscript, we know the answer. The document, from 1854, describes the encounter, revealing questions the monk had formulated for the Christian missionaries. For example, what are the differences between Western science and Indian traditional knowledge? And how can Christian knowledge be considered true when it fails to meet criteria for valid knowledge in the Jain tradition? Remarkably, this document reveals that many aspects of the debates between Indian religions and Christianity are as relevant today as they were almost two centuries ago.