Thailand relies to an inordinate extent on armed paramilitaries for border defence, drug suppression and pacification of the southern-most provinces. I have found that there are are more than 250,000 paramilitaries, including the Army’s Thahan Phran, Ministry of Interior’s Or Sor, and a variety of village-level militias. These groups are poorly paid, generally receive only several days of training per year, and often don’t know how to maintain their weapons. They are consistently part of the problem rather than the solution in the country’s insecure areas. They frequently lose their weapons to criminal and insurgent groups.