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Koe Tohi Fanogonogo Nuku

  • AU PMB DOC 389
  • Collection
  • June 1929 - July 1982

Monthly newspaper of the Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga. The full original title was Koe Tohi Fanogonogo: Ae Jiaji Uesiliana Tau'ataina 'o Toga. As a result of changes in Tongan orthography in mid-1943, this became Koe Tohi Fanongonongo: 'Ae Siasi Uesiliana Tau'ataina 'o Tonga.

Incomplete set:<BR>Reel 1: June 1929 - December 1953. Lacks: June - December 1929: January-February, November 1930: June-July 1931: June, September 1935: February, May, July, 1936: April 1941 (no issue): March-April, August, October, December 1945: August 1946: October-November 1947: February-March, August 1948: February, June - August 1949: July 1952: July, November 1953.<BR>Reel 2: January 1954 - December 1965. Lacks: July 1958: March-April 1961<BR>Reel 3: January 1966 - July 1982. Lacks: March, September - November 1966: June, August 1967: March 1968: January - August, December 1969: all 1970: February - December 1971: January - June, August - October, December 1972: January, June - October, December 1973: January - November 1974: January, April - September, November-December 1975: February, July, November-December 1976: April, November 1977: January, June - November 1978: January, April-May, October-November 1979: April - June, August 1981.

Koe Tohi Fanogonogo

Avenir Caledonien Noumea: Union Caledonienne. No. 1 +, 11 December 1954 +

  • AU PMB DOC 393
  • Collection
  • 11 December 1954 - 23 December 1987

Political periodical which reflects over 33 years of social, political and economic change in New Caledonia and includes very lively criticisms of, and exchanges between, local personalities. A few issues in New Caledonian Melanesian languages, Tahitian and Wallisian. Organ of Union Caledonienne, reflects also changes in the U.C. itself from its formation in 1952 as an anti-communist reformist party with a large Melanesian base, dominated by Europeans and deeply attached to France, to the principal element in the independence movement's Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak et Socialiste. Originally edited by Maurice Lenormand: its 1987 editor was Nicholas Pidjot. First issue published 11 December 1954, very irregular between 1972 - 1979, still published in 1989.<BR>The collection microfiched was obtained from a variety of sources (Union Caledonienne, M. Lenormand, National Library of Australia, Archives Territoriales New Caledonia, Bess Flores) but no complete set exists with any of these sources. Issues not available may not have been published.

Nos 1 (11 December 1954) - 980 (23 December 1987), 978 documents in all. Missing issues: 147 (1957): 152 (1958): 414 (1963): 557 (1966): 931, 935, 938, 940 (1985). Fiche 1-8 contain an incomplete set of the Union Caledonienne congresses as follows.<BR>0001 : 11th congress 1980 (22pp)<BR> : 1st Congress 1956 (=U.C. ce qu'elle est ...) pp 1-40<BR>0002 : 1st Congress 1956 pp 41-64<BR>0003 : Programme d'action, 1957<BR>0004 : Progress report on activities between the 3rd Congress (1958) and 4th congress (1960) presented by M. Lenormand at the 4th Congress<BR>0005 : Tract 'Une vague de calumnie ...' undated<BR> : 5th Congress, Poindimie, 1962<BR>0005/0006: 6th Congress 1963<BR>0007 : Territorial elections 1977<BR> :12th Congress 1981<BR>0008 : 10th Anniversary Congress, same as 5th Congress, Poindimie, 1962 (on 0004) with cover page added.D

Avenir Caledonien

Essais sur la construction des peuples extra-europeens ou collection des navires et pirogues construits par les habitants ... du Grand Ocean et de l'Amerique ... 1843. Paris: A. Bertrand, 1841+

  • AU PMB DOC 396
  • Collection
  • 1843

A copy of this work was offered in 1985 for sale ($USA7500) by E.J. Lefkowiz (Massachusettes) with the following description:<BR>Paris, (Francois Edmond). ESSAIS SUR LA CONSTRUCTION DES PEUPLES EXTRA-EUROPEENS OU COLLECTION DES NAVIRES ET PIROGUES CONSTRUITS PAR LES HABITANTS DE L'ASIE, DE LA MALASIE, DU GRAND OCEAN ET DE L'AMERIQUE. Dessines et mesures par M. Paris, ... pendant les voyages autour du monde de l'Astrolabe, la Favorite, et l'Artemise ... Paris, (1843) Folio, 52.8 cm., 2 vols. bound in one: (s6), 156, (2) pp. (text): (2) pp. + 133 plates (atlas) ... Paris, an expert on shipbuilding, was on three of the most important 19th-century French voyages to the Pacific: with Dumont d'Urville on the Astrolabe (1826-29): with LaPlace on the Favorite (1829-32 and on the Artemise (1837-40)... . The work was originally issued in parts. Includes accounts of visit to Tahiti, Caroline and Mariana Islands and plates showing canoes and small vessels constructed there. Microfilm presented to PMB by Prof. G.A. Horride of ANU. For description of the edition to be prepared by Prof. Horridge see Pambu 3(2) 1989.

Paris Francois Edmond

New Hebrides Mission photographs, 1890-2008

  • Collection
  • 1890-2008

This is a collection of 94 images of the Presbyterian mission in the New Hebrides, taken between 1890 and 2008. The collection was created by the Foreign Missions Committee, and there are multiple creators for individual images (see individual records).

The collection contains photographs of Tangoa Training Institute (TTI), ni-Vanuatu teachers including Jack Tavimasoe, carved slit drums, early missionary William Watt, and Nurse Elizabeth who was the first ni-Vanuatu woman to gain a nurses certificate with the church. The photographs were taken on multiple islands including Nguna, Santo and Malekula.

The New Hebrides Mission from the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand:
The Presbyterian Church began sending missionaries to the New Hebrides (today known as Vanuatu) in the mid-19th Century. The first missionary was Rev. John Geddie of the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia who arrived on the island of Aneityum in 1848. Subsequent missionaries came from the Presbyterian Churches of New Zealand, Canada, Scotland and Australia (Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and New South Wales).
In New Zealand an interest in supporting a Christian mission to the New Hebrides was fostered when Rev. John Inglis of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland toured the country in 1852 following a three month tour of the New Hebrides and Solomon Islands. In that same year, Inglis and his wife joined Geddie on Aneityum. Rev. John Inglis continued to send regular reports of his work to New Zealand, leading to increasing interest from the Church there in sending their own missionaries to the islands.
The Presbyterian Church of New Zealand was at that time divided up into the ÒNorthern ChurchÓ and the ÒSouthern ChurchÓ (consisting of the Provinces of Otago and Southland). The Southern Church was based on the ideals of the Free Church of Scotland and these principles influenced its mission work for many years. For over 40 years the two Churches worked separately, with mission activities during this time operating independently of each other.
Over several decades the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand sent a number of missionaries to the New Hebrides including the following people. The information below includes the missionaries' date of arrival in the New Hebrides, the name of the missionary and the name of the main island on which they worked:
1866, Rev. William Watt, Tanna
1870, Rev. Peter Milne, Nguna
1879, Rev. Oscar Michelsen, Tongoa
1885, Rev. Charles Murray, Ambrym
1889, Rev. Thomas Smaill, Epi
1892, Rev. Dr. Lamb, Ambrym
1899, Dr. John Bowie, Ambrym
1903, Rev. Thomas Riddle, Epi
1905, Rev. William V. Milne, Nguna (born on Nguna in 1877)
1932, Rev. Basil Nottage, Tongoa
1938, Rev. Ken Crump, Nguna
1941, Rev. J.G. Miller, Tongoa
1944, Rev. Ian Muir, Emae and Epi
1948, Rev. A.G. Horwell, Epi
In the early years there was no organised or reliable shipping service to the individual islands of the New Hebrides so it was important for the Church to have their own vessel to bring regular supplies from Australia and New Zealand. A boat was also necessary for transport to other mission stations. Although the New Hebrides missionaries were responsible for their home churches and allotted areas and islands, they worked closely together on common issues and met annually for a mission Synod meeting. New Zealand Presbyterian Church worked in conjunction with the Australian Presbyterian Church to raise money and purchased a mission supply vessel, the ÒDayspring IÓ. This 115 ton brigantine was launched in Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1863. It was lost in a hurricane ten years later and replaced by a second hand schooner, the ÒDayspring IIÓ in 1876. The Dayspring II was sold prior to 1890 as she was too small and slow and uncomfortable to sail in. The Australian missionary Dr. John G. Paton raised £6000 during a visit to Britain in 1884-1885 and later increased the donations to £7000. The ÒDayspring IIIÓ was built on the Clyde in Scotland to the order of the Victorian Presbyterian Church Foreign Missions Committee. She was 157 feet long and arrived in Australia in 1895. On only her fourth voyage to the islands, she sank on the 16th October 1896 after striking an uncharted coral reef near New Caledonia. The decision was made not to replace the vessel.
The New Hebrides Mission shared a practical concern for the everyday needs of island people. In addition to converting local people to Christianity, the missionaries worked to improve education, through the introduction of schools where the training of local mission teachers was initiated. The Tangoa TeachersÕ Training Institute opened at Tangoa, South Santo, in 1895. The purpose of the Institute was to train local teachers and it was supported by all the Protestant missions working throughout the New Hebrides. Missionaries also worked to improve health education and services and encouraged the production of arrowroot and island trading as a means to generate revenue. Arrowroot powder was shipped to New Zealand and other countries, where it was initially distributed by womenÕs missionary groups and later by commercial organisations. The funds from the sale of arrowroot were used to build additional churches in the islands and, in some cases, as a donation towards New Zealand mission funds to be used elsewhere. From 1880 to 1918 on Nguna alone, over 26 tons of arrowroot was produced.
By 1910, the work of the New Hebrides Mission was declining. This was partly due to a rapidly decreasing population on the islands and a feeling that little room existed for further expansion of mission work, as by then most areas were adequately covered. The reduction in population was primarily caused by introduced European illnesses and epidemics which decimated the local population. The Queensland labour trade had also had an impact on the local population, with many locals having decided to remain in Queensland.
In 1947 there was a general consensus held among the Island missionaries that the local church was ready to assume control of its own affairs. A constitution was drawn up, and after amendments submitted by the New Zealand and Australian Mission Committees and the New Hebrides Mission Synod, it was adopted. At a Centennial Synod meeting in 1948, the 100th anniversary of the arrival of the Rev. John Geddie, the local church was placed fully in charge of its own affairs. The island mission councils for Australia and New Zealand were then limited to the affairs of their immediate mission staff. The New Zealand Church continued to provide a large financial grant to the New Hebrides Presbyterian Church. A continued focus remained on training church leaders and education more generally. The Tangoa Training Institute later introduced a curriculum of advanced theological studies.
In the early 1950s, the New Zealand Missions Committee responded to the request for assistance to establish a High School at Onesua on Efate, along with funds and personnel to set up and run a small hospital on Tongoa. The Committee viewed this project as a practical means by which the New Zealand Church could provide for a social need rather than a means for furthering evangelistic opportunities. This policy shift in Mission funding opened up other opportunities for aid from the New Zealand Church including developing Navota Farm and opening the Maropa religious bookshop in Port Vila, training local islanders to be trades people and undertake the building work. The New Zealand Bible Class volunteer scheme sent out young people during the 1960s to assist with building, administration and nursing. The Mission, at the request of the Presbyterian Church of the New Hebrides, divested itself of all remaining authority in the Islands so that the New Zealand missionaries effectively worked for the New Hebrides Church. In 1965 a memorandum was prepared which defined the terms of Òresponsible partnershipÓ and sought to define the responsibilities of each partner. The Church continues today as the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu.
For more information about New Hebrides Mission collections at the Archives of the Presbyterian Research Centre, Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa, and New Zealand, see:"


Slides and photographs of election campaigns during 1966 election in Fiji

  • AU PMB PHOTO 103
  • Collection
  • 1966

This collection of slides and photographs was taken by Robert Norton on his first research trip to Fiji, which took place during the 1966 Legislative Council elections campaigning.

The general Legislative Council elections were held in late 1966, just over a year after the first constitutional conference in London, and five years after the British government announced its plan to prepare Fiji for self-government.

The indigenous Fijian leaders were initially very anxious about this objective, viewing it as a threat to the protection they believed the Fijians had enjoyed under the colonial government’s policies, based in part, on the government’s interpretation of the Deed of Cession by which nearly 100 years before the leading chiefs had entrusted the islands to the British crown.

The Fiji Indians who in the 1960s were 51% of the population, and generally more advanced economically than the Fijians (43% of the population), looked favourably on the prospect of an end to colonial rule and their principal leaders called for a common franchise to replace communal (ethnic) political representation. The very influential but tiny European minority, concerned to preserve their longstanding privileged political representation, stood with the Fijians against radical constitutional change.

The 1966 elections were the first in which broadly-based political parties competed for a substantial power in the colonial parliament. The 1965 constitutional conference had changed the parliament (legislative council) from a council dominated by colonial officials appointed by the governor, to one dominated by elected representatives: 14 Indigenous Fijians, (2 elected by the Great Council of Chiefs), 12 Indians, 10 General electors (Europeans, Part-Europeans, Pacific islanders other than Fijians, and Chinese). The new constitution completed the expansion of the vote to a universal franchise, begun in 1963. Only four seats were reserved for colonial officials.

Most of the electorates remained ethnically defined, and all the seats remained ethnically reserved.

But overlaying the many communal electorates, were now three very large Cross Voting electorates covering the entire colony. They were multi-ethnic, made up from the communal electorates, and each had three reserved seats: Fijian, Indian, and General. The electors were entitled to four votes - one in their communal electorate, and three in their cross-voting electorate. Voting was not compulsory, and to cast a valid vote an elector need tick only the communal seat ballot paper if they wished. Communal seats numbered 9 Fijian, 9 Indian, and 7 General; there were 3 Fijian, 3 Indian, and 3 General cross-voting seats. Indigenous Fijians enjoyed additional representation by the two Council of Chiefs members of the parliament.

The intention of introducing the cross-voting electorates was to give people experience in supporting candidates of different ethnic identities from their own - a step, the British said, toward an eventual common franchise without reserved seats. It was hoped that political parties would each field candidates of different ethnicity, and that these would campaign together - the communal candidates assisting the campaigning of their cross-voting partners.

Some of the slides and photos illustrate this joint campaigning in western Viti Levu, by Fijian, Indian, and General candidates of the Alliance Party. All the pictures were taken on Viti Levu, Fiji’s major island.

The Alliance Party, whose main component body was the indigenous Fijian Association, won 22 seats (12 Fijian, 3 Indian, 7 General). The Federation Party (later the National Federation Party) secured only the 9 communal Indian seats; the party fielded only one non-Indian candidate, Fijian cane farmer Penaia Rokovuni (photos 48-54). Three General candidates were elected as independents.


Robert Norton 'Race and Politics in Fiji', University of Queensland Press, 1977, revised edition 1990

Roderick Alley 'The Emergence of Party Politics'. In 'Politics in Fiji' edited by Brij Lal, Allen & Unwin, 1986. Pp28-51

Norton, Robert (1944- )

Selected Archives from the Catholic Bishop's Office in Kavieng

  • AU PMB MS 1425
  • Collection
  • Various

This collection includes selected archives from the Catholic bishop’s office in Kavieng, New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea. Papers describe the history of the Catholic Church in Kavieng, including meeting and conference papers, along with other official documentation. It also includes accounts of church personnel around and during World War II. This collection also includes documentation relating to the Australian Television Service, Australian War Crimes Commission, 1975 Independence Programme for Kavieng and the Catholic Handbook for PNG. See individual items for more detailed descriptions of content.

Roman Catholic Church, Kavieng

Reverend Conrad Stallan's photographs of the New Hebrides (Vanuatu), 1940s

  • AU PMB PHOTO 104
  • Collection
  • 1940 - ?

A collection of photographs taken by Reverend Conrad George Stallan, who was stationed on Malekula in the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) from 1940-1946. Supported by the John G Paton Mission Fund, Rev Stallan was based in Wintua, South West Bay. During his life, Stallan was a keen photographer. He maintained a dark room to develop and print his photographs in both Malekula and Georgetown, British Guiana, where he was stationed in 1955-1961.

Stallan, Conrad George (1904-1980)

Bachelor of Divinity and Master of Theology theses

  • AU PMB MS 1427
  • Collection
  • 1994-2016

The Pacific Theological College (PTC) in Suva, Fiji, is an ecumenical institution founded in 1966 to assist in providing the Pacific churches a highly trained indigenous ministry. The College established an international reputation for quality theological education, particularly in the three core areas of Biblical Studies, Theology and History of Christianity. In 1987 it began a Master of Theology programme in Pacific Church History. The thesis is an integral part of the PTC's Bachelor of Divinity and Master of Theology programmes. Theses systematically apply detailed local knowledge to topics covering a broad range of cultural, social and political matters in the Pacific Islands.

For student theses 1968– 1993 see PMB MS 1084

Pacific Theological College

Results 2001 to 2008 of 2008